Why do runway incursions happen?
5.1 There are many reasons why runway incursions occur, and a reading of accident reports where runway incursion was a factor will highlight many of these. The report of the Milan Linate accident is particularly instructive:
5.2 Runway incursions occur because of inevitable human failings which human factors engineering have not anticipated or adequately mitigated. These failings can take many forms:
5.2.1 lack of comprehension of instructions such as clearances due to poor communications quality or cultural differences;
5.2.2 confusion caused by lack of clarity in instructions, markings, signage, lighting and publications;
5.2.3 susceptibility to suggestion caused by cultural or commercial factors;
5.2.4 loss of situational awareness; and
5.2.5 distractions and excessive workload.