Appendix A – Task and Resource Analysis Guidance

1. General Information

(a) A Task and Resource Analysis consists of the following:

(1) A scenario for analysis.

(2) Identification of the tasks that need to be carried out for that scenario.

(3) A time line, identifying when individual tasks are to be carried out.

(4) The number of persons required to carry out individual tasks (due account should be taken of fatigue, health and safety issues etc.).

(5) All the tasks identified within the scenario.

This process should be undertaken for a number of different scenarios.

It may be useful to run the process as a tabletop exercise, involving a number of disciplines.

(b) The scenarios and analysis should take into consideration the following elements including, for example:

  • Aircraft types using the aerodrome;

  • The RFFS vehicle(s); and

  • The use of self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA);

  • Hand lines;

  • ladders; and

  • Other rescue and fire-fighting equipment1 provided at the aerodrome associated with aircraft RFFS operations.

(c) The minimum requirements should be established including: minimum number of RFFS vehicles and equipment required for the delivery of the extinguishing agents at the required discharge rate for the specified ICAO RFFS category of the aerodrome. ( ref. OTAC 140-5. ICAO Annex 14 Volume 1, Table 9-2 and 9.2.41).

(d) One of the most important elements of a TRA is to identify and assess the impact of any critical tasks or pinch points identified by the analysis. The nature of the analysis will differ depending on whether it is an assessment of the existing RFFS deployment at the aerodrome or planning for future requirements.

(e) The assessment should examine the workload and identify the effectiveness of the staffing level. Where shortfall(s) or pinch point(s) are found the analysis should identify the additional staffing or equipment required to eliminate them.

(f) The following items will assist in determining the basic contents of an analysis:

  • Human factors;

  • Description of aerodrome(s) including the number of runways;

  • Promulgated RFFS Categories (Aeronautical Information Publication);

  • Response Time Criteria (Area, times and number of Fire Stations);

  • Current and future types of aircraft movements;

  • Operational hours;

  • Current RFFS structure and establishment;

  • Current level of personnel;

  • Level of supervision for each operational crew;

  • RFFS qualifications/competence (training programme and facilities);

  • Extraneous duties (to include domestic and first aid response);

  • Communications and RFFS alerting system including extraneous duties;

  • Appliances and extinguishing agents available;

  • Aerodrome terrain (in the response area);

  • Specialist equipment – fast rescue craft, hovercraft, water carrier, hose layer, extending boom technology;

  • Fist aid – role responsibility;

  • Medical facilities – role responsibility;

  • Pre-determined attendance: local authority services – Police, Fire and Ambulance etc.;

  • Appraisal of existing RFFS provision

  • Future requirements. Aerodrome development and expansion

  • Enclosures could include: Aerodrome maps, event trees to explain tasks and functions conducted by the RFFS etc.

  • Aerodrome emergency plan and procedures

Note: The above list is not exhaustive and should only act as a guide.

2. Task and Resource Analysis Team

(a) It is important to identify a facilitator who will manage the TRA exercise. In the planning stage, the role of the facilitator is to seek agreement that the worst-case scenario is credible and an adequate test of the RFFS response.

(b) To carry out the TRA a team of experienced fire service personnel to evaluate the scenario needs to be established. They need to have knowledge of the aerodrome and the locations in which an aircraft accident is likely to occur. The team should include all levels of the RFFS organisation.

(c) For some scenarios, it may be useful to include one or two non-RFFS personnel in the exercise (possibly experienced operational or ATC staff) to check and challenge the validity of any assumptions that may arise during the TRA.

3. Task and Resource Analysis

(a) A Task and Resource Analysis may be structured in three phases:

  • Phase 1 – Aims and Objectives

  • Phase 2 – Scenario development

  • Phase 3 – Task and Resource Analysis

(b) Guidance on the content of each Phase, including examples, is provided below. Clearly, each aerodrome will need to establish and design its TRA to suit its particular environment and operation. The following bullets are not exhaustive, nor are they a rigid framework. However, they provide an outline of the type of content that may be expected in a TRA.

(c) Phase 1 – Aims and Objectives

The aims and objectives of the RFFS must clearly identify the required tasks that personnel are expected to carry out.

(1) Aims

To maintain a dedicated RFFS of qualified and competent fire and rescue personnel equipped with vehicles and specialist equipment to make an immediate response to an aircraft incident/accident on or in the immediate vicinity of the aerodrome within the specified response time criteria.

To identify any pinch points within the current workload and proposed workload. For small RFFS units, identified pinch points may have to be covered by alternative resources.

(2) Tasks Objectives

  • Meet the required response time

  • Extinguish an external fire

  • Protect escape slides/ exit routes

  • Assist in the self-evacuation of the aircraft

  • Create a survivable environment

  • Rescue trapped personnel

  • Maintain post-fire security/control

  • Preserve evidence

Notes: The above list is not exhaustive and all relevant tasks must be identified before moving to Phase 2.
Each task/mission may include numerous activities/actions.

(d) Phase 2 – Scenario(s) development

(1) Identify a selection of representative realistic and feasible aircraft accidents/incidents that may occur at the aerodrome. It is also important to consider aircraft at the high end of the RFFS category to enable analysis of the upper limits of the RFFS response. This can be achieved by:

  • analysis of accidents around the world;

  • consideration of the accident/incident history at the aerodrome;

  • brainstorming ideas using a representative team from the aerodrome;

  • statistical analysis of previous accidents at aerodromes.

Note: All accidents should involve fire to represent a feasible worst-case scenario that would require an RFFS response.

Example scenarios could include:

  • Aircraft engine failure on take-off with a fire (aborted take-off);

  • Aircraft aborts and overruns into the Runway End Safety Area (RESA) with fire on take-off (including aircraft beyond aerodrome boundary (within response area) into water or difficult terrain);

  • Aircraft into aircraft with fire (collision);

  • Aircraft into structure (terminal buildings) with a fire;

  • Aircraft leaves the runway on landing into the runway strip (full emergency evacuation);

  • Internal aircraft fire (e.g. cabin fire, baggage hold, cargo hold, avionics bay(s)).

(2) In order that the feasible accident scenario can be modelled/simulated, a major factor is to consider the probable location for the most realistic accident type that may occur, taking into account the aerodrome’s particular location, environment, runway and taxiway configuration, etc., which may present specific risks.

(3) The team may have identified that the following elements contribute to a worst-case location:

  • Response time;

  • Route to the accident site (on or off paved surfaces);

  • Terrain;

  • Crossing procedures for active runway(s);

  • Communications;

  • Supplementary water supplies;

  • Adverse weather conditions – e.g. Low Visibility Procedures, snow/ice;

  • Daylight and darkness;

(4) From the above analysis a location or a number of locations may be identified, in agreement with the aerodrome operator, the TRA facilitator and, if necessary, the regulator.

(e) Phase 3 – Task and Resource Analysis

(a) Led by the TRA facilitator, the TRA team evaluates the accident scenario(s) developed in Phase 2 in a series of tabletop exercises/simulations.

(b) The TRA objective should be to identify in real-time, and in sequential order the minimum number of RFF personnel required at any one time to achieve the following:

  • Receive the message and dispatch the RFFS (the dispatcher may have to respond as part of the minimum riding strength)

  • Respond utilising communications; taking appropriate route and achieving the defined response time

  • Position appliances/vehicles in optimum positions and operate RFF appliances effectively

  • Use extinguishing agents and equipment accordingly

  • Deploy equipment accordingly

  • Instigate Incident Command Structure

  • Assist in passenger and crew self-evacuation

  • Access aircraft to carry out specific tasks if required, e.g. fire fighting, rescue etc.

  • Support and sustain the deployment of fire-fighting and rescue equipment

  • Support and sustain the delivery of supplementary water supplies

  • Need to replenish foam supplies

(c) The results of the analysis should be recorded in a table, spreadsheet or other suitable format. An example is given below.

(d) Stated objectives for the RFFS

  • Initiate aerodrome emergency plan

  • Deploy within the required response time

  • Select appropriate route and communications

  • Position appliances in optimum positions and operate effectively

  • Initiate incident command system

  • Suppress/extinguish any fire

  • Assist with self-evacuation of the aircraft

  • If appropriate, extinguish any internal fire

  • If required, ventilate aircraft to create survivable conditions

  • Maintain post-fire control of the critical area

  • Preserve evidence

(e) The TRA may be set out in a table that times each task and identified the resource required for each step of the response. Table 1 is an abbreviated example to demonstrate the principles.

140-6_AppendixA_table.jpg


Notes: It can be seen that four fire-fighters and two supervisors including the officer in charge are required to achieve the above, supported by two Major Foam Tenders.
The timings can be further verified by the use of practical exercises and individual analysis to establish if they are realistic and achievable for each task and function.
Each of the above tasks can be sub-divided into individual functions associated with the specific task performed at a particular time.

Questions that may be asked as part of the TRA:

  • How long does it take to don protective clothing?
  • How long does it take to don self-contained breathing apparatus?
  • How long does it take to slip and pitch a ladder?
  • How long does it take to open an aircraft door from the head of a ladder (if required)?
  • How long does it take to deploy one, two, three, etc., lengths of delivery hose?
  • How long does it take to carry any item of rescue equipment over a specified distance and get to work?

4. Conclusion

(a) A Task Resource Analysis can be as detailed as necessary. The aim is to itemise the knowledge and practical skills (doing) involved in carrying out the task effectively and to the correct standard. Having gathered the appropriate data and agreed the outcome, the TRA should enable an RFFS to confirm and subsequently provide the correct level of vehicles, equipment and personnel. It would also enable the RFFS to develop a training specification and a learning programme can then be designed around role and task. When planning and carrying out a TRA ask the following questions:

  • What is done?

  • Why is it done?

  • When is it done?

  • Where is it done?

  • How is it done?

  • Who does it?

(b) The overall objective is to be satisfied that the RFFS is organised, equipped, staffed, trained and operated to ensure the most rapid deployment of facilities to maximum effect in the event of an accident.

(c) The above process can also be used to identify equipment shortages and training needs for personnel required to deal with identified tasks.

 


1 This should extend to specialist equipment such as, fast rescue craft, hovercraft, water carrier, hose layer, extending boom technology


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