When used in OTARs and OTACs:
State safety programme means an integrated set of regulations and activities aimed at improving safety.
Safety performance indicator is a measure (or metric) used to express the safety performance in a system.
Safety performance target is the desired level of safety performance. A safety performance target comprises one or more safety performance indicators, together with desired outcomes expressed in terms of those indicators.
Note: ICAO Doc.9859 Safety Management Manual describes safety performance indicators and safety performance targets within the concept of an "acceptable level of safety". This concept is used to express safety expectations under a performance-based approach that is designed to complement regulatory compliance.
Safety initiatives are the steps that need to be taken to achieve the safety performance targets. They include the operational procedures, technology systems and programmes to which measures of reliability, availability, performance and/or accuracy can be specified.
Note: Safety initiatives are referred to in ICAO Doc.9859, as "safety requirements".
A hazard is any situation or condition that has the potential to cause damage or injury.
Risks are the potential adverse consequences of a hazard, and are assessed in terms of their severity and likelihood.
When risks have been assessed, mitigation is then needed: either to eradicate the hazard, or to reduce the severity or likelihood of the risks.